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DEHUMANIfcATION                          41

slavery. The purely formal comprehension of
liberty has led to actual non-liberty. Liberty has
been proclaimed, but has been found impossible
to realize by the greater part of mankind.
Economic freedom especially has proved to be
a mockery of man's real freedom. The rights
of man and of the citizen have been completely
discredited. They have gone the way of the
atomistic world-view of the eighteenth century,
of the French Revolution, of the individualism
of outworn Liberalism and the decadent forms of
democracy. If there is an eternal element in
democracy, by the way, it is surely connected,
not with the idea of the supremacy of a nation,
but with the idea of the subjective rights of
human personality, with freedom of spiritual
life, freedom of conscience, thought, speech and

This idea of inalienable subjective rights for
the human personality derives, not from Rousseau
nor from the French Revolutionary Jacobins,
but from Christianity and the movements con-
nected with the Reformation. But the idea of
the rights of man was distorted and perverted in
the bourgeois-capitalistic society of the nineteenth
and twentieth centuries; although given new
impetus by the French Revolution, it was dis-
torted in the formal bourgeois democracy which
followed. And this is connected with the very